I use assignments in class that attempt to assess basic concepts by rote, as well as critical thinking and problem solving. I have included some relevant examples below.
Music Theory 4
Students in 2nd-year Theory have become previously acquainted with the basic "building blocks" of rhythm, harmony and melody, and they are now working with more complex structures such as voice leading and polyrhythmic ideas. As a final assignment, students are asked to compose a tune that exemplifies "non-functional" harmony; in other words, a tune that is largely bereft of diatonic harmony in either major or minor. Students submit sheet music using Sibelius notation software, an essay analyzing the composition, and a recording of the tune.
The 4th-year Music Pedagogy course covers a wide variety of topics, ranging from music education history and philosophy, small and large ensemble conducting, to communication skills and lesson planning. The students in my section of Pedagogy create a "Youtube-style" instructional video as an assignment. The videos are 2-3 minutes in length, and they must contain a combination of audio and visual elements, particularly speech. They also are engaged in a 2-semester practicum, culminating in a 30 minute teaching video and a journal.
Here's an example of a student video by Nicholas Anderson-Frey, where he discusses big band voicings using Sibelius notation software: